Topic A: Boko Haram Insurgency in Sub-Saharan Africa
Boko Haram – the radical Islamist group based in Nigeria – continues to be a persistent threat in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has expanded its scope and operations dramatically since its inception, bringing about devastating consequences for the population of Nigeria, but increasingly also for the neighbouring countries’ inhabitants. It has carried out attacks in the capital cities of Chad, Cameroon and Niger and as such become a regional and complex security threat. Its declaration of allegiance to the Islamic State has only confirmed to the international community that combating this group and its allies has become a global goal as well.
Having recently undergone an internal split, coupled with the ongoing efforts of the Nigerian government to root out the group, it has scaled back its operations somewhat in recent years. There have been voices in the international community that have already proclaimed it defeated – but with a sizeable fighting force, thousands of captives and hostages and a seemingly endless poverty to exploit, the group continues to pose a significant threat to peace and security in the region.
Topic B: Conflict in Kashmir
There is no doubt that the ongoing territorial dispute between India and Pakistan for the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is one of the most prominent conflicts in XX-XXI centuries. With India controlling 43% of the region and Pakistan controlling 37%, both countries claim their rights for the whole state, leading to massacre and bloodshed. Ever since the partition of India in 1947, the violence rarely stopped and the conflict is still unsolved, causing militant border attacks to this day, the latest being in September 2016. The Kashmir conflict is not barely internal, but takes an international dimension taking into account the nuclear capabilities of both sides.
The UN has played a prime mediating role in the conflict, although its previous attempts to resolve the issue failed to create a long-lasting peace in the region. Therefore, the problem of the Kashmir conflict is of utmost importance for the international security and demands a consideration and attention of the UN Security Council.
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